Taking into account management cases, we will consider five types of training in the case study method.
In this case, the problem or situation either already had some preliminary solution, or their solution is necessary and urgent, and therefore require analysis.
Each of the problems (situations) considered in the case must meet four conditions.
First, the cases must be true, realistic, but at the same time, not burdened with details, be subject to management. Relevant data should be both direct and indirect, aimed at analyzing and discussing the specific management situation.
A case that meets nine characteristics of a quality case is considered good:
be skillfully told a story, relate to an important management problem, describe the dramatic situation with a critical management decision, contain specific comparisons, provide an opportunity to summarize, have a central character, allow you to assess the effectiveness of previously made management decisions, be optimal in size, contain optimal amount of information.
Second, situational exercises offer consideration of the phenomena that are usually encountered by civil servants, namely: the causes and consequences of managerial actions, motivation and morale of employees; structure and policy that determine the activities of the body or organization; consequences of specific management styles; interaction of analysis programs and policy programs; the effects of activities on activities and financial control on the behavior of individuals and groups of people; other predictable and unpredictable factors of organizational life.
Third, the cases sharpen managers’ interest in the issues they face, emphasize their importance and the need to address them. Cases also suggest ways to respond and improve the listener’s skills in solving management problems.
Fourth, cases improve practical skills; direct to the search for appropriate ways, possible reactions to management situations, the use of specific tools and concepts. Case studies develop the ability of managers to analyze, avoid mistakes that often occur in the management context. Typically, a typical case represents both "good, proper" and "bad, unacceptable" management practice, without identifying them; none of the cases is a measure of effective or ineffective management behavior.
A good case must meet the following requirements:
meet a clear goal; have the appropriate level of complexity; illustrate several aspects of life; do not age too fast; have a national color; be relevant today; illustrate typical situations; to develop analytical thinking; to provoke a discussion; have multiple solutions.
The purpose of the cases is a detailed analysis, not an evaluation (especially an early evaluation). Their purpose is not to present specific ones "the right ways" and assistance in acquiring analysis skills – this is what helps to increase the efficiency of public administration. Along with the improvement of analytical skills, the method of situational exercises stimulates the development of insight, is a form of knowledge testing, develops the ability to separate the important from the trivial in management, fosters a sense of responsibility in teaching students.
The most direct way to improve the skills of observation, analysis and synthesis is through the development of students’ interactive activities such as:
interaction – focusing on important data or the absence of such in management; models or theories that connect infinite observations and allow us to draw a conclusion in the form: because I observed "X" i need to be careful about "Z" and "W" because they are co-measured with "X"; alternative actions that are constantly being refined or checked.
In short, the case approach should help improve the ability to isolate problems and make effective decisions. In addition, this method teaches students to analyze and develop programs of action, which, in turn, motivates them to behave properly when it comes time to act in a real situation.
Case studies also help to transfer the learning environment from the audience to the workplace. This is buy essay cheap compare and contrast especially possible given that listeners:
a) are better aware of their own priorities and values that are relevant to their professional activities; b) learn to determine the classes of more or less typical situations; c) develop greater opportunities for analysis, assess the consequences of various decisions of the management situation.
Taking into account management cases, we will consider five types of training in the case study method.
First, cases are not used to transfer knowledge (although, of course, some knowledge is transmitted). Cases are provided "images" real problems or real situations that provide the listener with knowledge of what needs to be done in the organization / institution. Discussion of cases is a potential impetus for the exchange of perspectives and practical experience.
Second, the management case facilitates the integration and application of knowledge. The case method is based on the mutual exchange of students’ experiences in the most convenient and economical way.
Third, the case study method develops the listener’s ability to solve complex but useful examples of management problems. This demonstrates that managerial situations, although complex in nature, are amenable to analysis. Such examples are an important component "style" manager, fundamental and characteristic ways of solving management problems. This style is purely individual and cannot be developed through the direct transfer of knowledge.
Fourth, case study training sharpens the assessment of priorities and values. The learner in the learning process demonstrates their own attitudes, values and managerial orientations, which are supported or not perceived by other students.
The results of such interactive learning are difficult to predict or verify because they can take many forms. As a rule, joint comparison and verification of acquired experience bring something new to the practical activities of students.
Fifth, case studies are always useful in enriching the experience and improving the skills that students use to bring closer the values they consider most desirable. All skills together can be described in one phrase – creative problem solving and situation analysis and decision making.
Skills developed by the case-study method:
analytical skills (ability to distinguish data from information, classify, extract essential and non-essential information, analyze, present and extract them; think clearly and logically), practical skills (formation in practice of skills of using management theory, methods and principles) , creative skills alternative solutions that cannot be found in a logical way), communication skills (ability to lead a discussion, persuade colleagues, use visual material and other media, cooperate in groups, defend one’s point of view, persuade opponents, make a short and convincing report), social skills (assessment of people’s behavior, ability to listen, support in discussion or argue opposing opinions, control yourself, etc.).
Cases best involve students in actively resolving the situation, to participate in the events of the case. Case approach:
defines the problem as one that corresponds to the real situation that students face in the work experience; increases the involvement of students in the learning process; encourages listeners to discuss using different approaches, interpretations and personalities; helps to expand the analytical attention and problem-solving orientation of students, especially those who have a personal view of the organization / institution or who "narrow (tunnel) vision"; promotes learning without pressure; contributes to the education of the so-called "compassion" when listeners identify with the heroes of the case, present themselves in different roles or situations; reduces the level of depersonalization and abstraction present in teaching and learning.
The purpose of the case method – the development of learners’ ability to make decisions – requires the organization of the learning process as a process of finding and making decisions.
Effective preparation for cases, according to J. Pierce and RB Robinson, involves the following activities: adequately organize their time to prepare the case, read the case twice, focus on strategic issues, do not look down on "evidence" work in a convenient time frame, transform their knowledge into the field of management. Since the case method requires active participation, the student / listener should: regularly attend classes, be always ready, participate in discussions, consider the problem in a broad sense, adhere to the topic of discussion. In turn, the teacher demonstrates such roles as: focuses attention, attracts students / students, emphasizes the learning process on the concepts of management, plays the role of a defender "the devil" (takes a counter position).
According to the concept of open models of decision-making behavior, the process of finding and making decisions that students go through while working on the case can be represented in phases.
1st stage. Identify the purpose of the case study, such as learning how to communicate effectively within an organization / institution. To do this, you can develop a case, taking the example of a well-known organization / institution, describe its communications, which are used by managers to organize work with staff. Develop questions and tasks that will allow students to master different types of communication (meetings of different levels, annual report, internal newspaper, announcements, briefings, etc.).
2nd stage. Identify a specific real situation according to the appropriate purpose.
3rd stage. Carry out preliminary work on finding sources of information for the case. You can use keyword search on the Internet, analysis of catalogs of printed publications, magazine articles, newspaper publications, statistics.
4th stage. Collect information and data for the case, various sources, including contacts with the organization described in the case.
5th stage. Prepare the first version of the case. This stage includes layout, layout of the material, determining the form of presentation (video, printing, etc.).
6th stage. Obtain permission to publish the case if the information contains data from a specific organization.